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Biogeosciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2019-95
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2019-95
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 09 Apr 2019

Research article | 09 Apr 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Biogeosciences (BG).

Applicability and consequences of the integration of alternative models for CO2 transfer velocity into a process-based lake model

Petri Kiuru1,2, Anne Ojala3,4,5, Ivan Mammarella6, Jouni Heiskanen6,7, Kukka-Maaria Erkkilä6, Heli Miettinen8, Timo Vesala4,6, and Timo Huttula1 Petri Kiuru et al.
  • 1Finnish Environment Institute, Freshwater Centre, Survontie 9A, 40500 Jyväskylä, Finland
  • 2University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, 40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland
  • 3Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme, University ofHelsinki, Niemenkatu 73, 15140 Lahti, Finland
  • 4Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Forest Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
  • 5Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science, University of Helsinki, Finland
  • 6nstitute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 68, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
  • 7ICOS ERIC Head Office, Erik Palménin aukio 1, 00560 Helsinki, Finland
  • 8Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 65, 00014 Helsinki, Finland

Abstract. Freshwater lakes are important in carbon cycling especially in the boreal zone, where many lakes are supersaturated with the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) and emit it to the atmosphere, thus ventilating carbon originally fixed by the terrestrial system. The exchange of CO2 between water and the atmosphere is commonly estimated using simple wind-based parameterizations or models of gas transfer velocity (k). More complex surface renewal models, however, have been shown to yield more correct estimates of k in comparison with direct CO2 flux measurements. We incorporated four gas exchange models with different complexity into a vertical process-based physicobiochemical lake model MyLake C and assessed the performance and applicability of the alternative lake model versions to simulate air-water CO2 fluxes over a small boreal lake. None of the incorporated gas exchange models significantly outperformed the other models in the simulations in comparison to the measured near-surface CO2 concentrations or respective air-water CO2 fluxes calculated directly with the gas exchange models using measurement data as input. The use of more complex gas exchange models in the simulation, on the contrary, led to difficulties in obtaining sufficient gain of CO2 in the water column and thus resulted in lower CO2 fluxes and water column CO2 concentrations compared to the respective measurement-based values. Inclusion of sophisticated and more correct models for air-water CO2 exchange in process-based lake models is crucial in efforts to properly assess lacustrine carbon budgets through model simulations both in single lakes and on a larger scale. However, finding higher estimates for both the internal and the external sources of inorganic carbon in boreal lakes is important if the improved knowledge of the magnitude of CO2 evasion from lakes is included in future studies on lake carbon budgets.

Petri Kiuru et al.
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Short summary
Many boreal lakes emit the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. We incorporated four different gas exchange models into a physicobiochemical lake model and studied their capability to simulate lake air-water CO2 fluxes. Inclusion of refined gas exchange models in lake models that simulate carbon cycling is important in assessing lake carbon budgets. However, higher estimates for inorganic carbon sources in boreal lakes are needed to balance the CO2 losses to the atmosphere.
Many boreal lakes emit the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. We...
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