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https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2019-426
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2019-426
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 14 Nov 2019

Submitted as: research article | 14 Nov 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Biogeosciences (BG).

Vivianite formation in ferruginous sediments from Lake Towuti, Indonesia

Aurèle Vuillemin1,a, André Friese1, Richard Wirth1, Jan A. Schuessler1, Anja M. Schleicher1, Helga Kemnitz1, Andreas Lücke2, Kohen W. Bauer3,b, Sulung Nomosatryo1,4, Friedhelm von Blanckenburg1, Rachel Simister3, Luis G. Ordoñez5, Daniel Ariztegui5, Cynthia Henny4, James M. Russell6, Satria Bijaksana7, Hendrik Vogel8, Sean A. Crowe3,9,b, Jens Kallmeyer1, and Towuti Drilling Project Science Team* Aurèle Vuillemin et al.
  • 1GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, Potsdam, 14473, Germany
  • 2Research Center Jülich, Institute of Bio- and Geosciences 3: Agrosphere, Jülich, 52428, Germany
  • 3Department of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada
  • 4Research Center for Limnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Cibinong-Bogor, Indonesia
  • 5Department of Earth Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, 1205, Switzerland
  • 6Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences, Brown University, 13 Providence, RI, 02912, USA
  • 7Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, 15 Bandung, 50132, Indonesia
  • 8Institute of Geological Sciences and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, 3012, Bern, Switzerland
  • 9Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada
  • apresent address: Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Paleontology and Geobiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, 80333, Germany
  • bpresent address: Department of Earth Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
  • *A full list of authors appears at the end of the paper.

Abstract. Ferruginous lacustrine systems, such as Lake Towuti, Indonesia, can experience restricted primary production due to phosphorus trapping by hydrous ferric iron (oxyhydr)oxides that reduce P concentrations in the water column. The oceans were also ferruginous during the Archean, so understanding the dynamics of phosphorus in modern-day ferruginous analogues may shed light on the marine biogeochemical cycling that dominated much of Earth's history. Here we report the presence of large crystals (> 5 mm) and nodules (> 5 cm) of vivianite – a ferrous iron phosphate – in sediment cores from Lake Towuti, and address the processes of phosphorus retention and iron mineral transformations during diagenesis in ferruginous sediments.

Core scans together with analyses of bulk sediment and pore water geochemistry document a 30 m long interval consisting of beds of sideritic and non-sideritic clays and diatomaceous oozes containing diagenetic vivianites. High-resolution imaging of vivianite revealed continuous growth of crystals from tabular to rosette habits that eventually form large (up to 7 cm) vivianite nodules in the sediment. Mineral inclusions like millerite and siderite reflect antecedent diagenetic mineral formation that is related to microbial reduction of iron and sulfate. This implies the formation and growth of vivianite crystals under reducing conditions during diagenesis. Negative ð56Fe values of vivianite indicated reductive dissolution of ferric oxides as the source of Fe in the vivianites with incorporation of microbially fractionated light Fe2+ into the crystals. The size and growth history of the nodules indicate that, after formation, continued growth of vivianite may constitute a significant sink for P in these sediments.

Aurèle Vuillemin et al.
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Aurèle Vuillemin et al.
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Pore water geochemistry and bulk sediment measurements of downcore profiles from site TDP-1A of the ICDP Towuti Drilling Project, Lake Towuti, Indonesia. A. Vuillemin, A. Friese, A. Lücke, K. W. Bauer, S. Nomosatryo, R. Simister, L. G. Ordoñez, D. Ariztegui, J. M. Russell, S. Bijaksana, H. Vogel, S. A. Crowe, J. Kallmeyer, and The Towuti Drilling Project Science Team https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.908080

Aurèle Vuillemin et al.
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Short summary
Ferruginous lakes experience restricted primary production due to phosphorus trapping by ferric iron oxides under oxic conditions. We report the presence of large crystals of vivianite, a ferrous iron phosphate, in sediments from Lake Towuti, Indonesia. We address processes of P retention in link to diagenesis of iron phases. Vivianite crystals had light Fe2+ isotope signatures and contained mineral inclusions consistent with antecedent processes of microbial sulfate and iron reduction.
Ferruginous lakes experience restricted primary production due to phosphorus trapping by ferric...
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