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Biogeosciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2018-49
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article
07 Feb 2018
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Biogeosciences (BG).
The high sensitivity of SMOS L-Band vegetation optical depth to biomass
Nemesio J. Rodríguez-Fernández1, Arnaud Mialon1, Stephane Mermoz1, Alexandre Bouvet1, Philippe Richaume1, Ahmad Al Bitar1, Amen Al-Yaari2, Martin Brandt3, Thomas Kaminski4, Thuy Le Toan1, Yann H. Kerr1, and Jean-Pierre Wigneron2 1Centre d'Etudes Spatiales de la Biosphère (CESBIO), Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Institut de Recherche pour le Dévelopement (IRD), Université Paul Sabatier, Université de Toulouse, 18 av. Edouard Belin, bpi 2801, 31401 Toulouse, France
2Interactions Sol Plante Atmosphére (ISPA), Unité Mixte de Recherche 1391, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), CS 20032, 33882 Villenave d'Ornon cedex, France
3Department of Geosciences and Natural Resources Management, University of Copenhagen, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark
4The inversion Lab, Hamburg, Germany
Abstract. The vegetation optical depth (VOD) measured at microwave frequencies is related to the vegetation water content and provides information complementary to visible/infra-red vegetation indices. This study is devoted to the characterisation of a new VOD data set obtained from SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) satellite observations at L-band (1.4 GHz). Three different SMOS L-band VOD (L-VOD) data sets (SMOS Level 2, Level 3 and SMOS-IC) were compared with data sets on tree height, visible/infra-red indexes (NDVI, EVI), cumulated precipitation, and above ground biomass (AGB) for the African continent. For all relationships, SMOS-IC showed the lowest dispersion and highest correlation. Overall, we found a strong (R > 0.85) correlation with no clear sign of saturation between L-VOD and four AGB data sets. The relationship linking L-VOD to tree height (R = 0.87) and Baccini's AGB (R = 0.94) was strong and linear. The relationships between L-VOD and three other AGB data sets were linear per land cover class, but with a changing slope depending on the land cover type. For low vegetation classes, the annual mean of L-VOD spans a range from 0 to 0.7 and it is linearly correlation with the amount of the average annual precipitations. SMOS L-VOD showed a higher sensitivity to AGB as compared to NDVI and K/X/C-VOD (VOD measured, respectively, at 19, 10.7, and 6.9 GHz). The results showed that although the spatial resolution of L-VOD is coarse (~ 40 km), the high temporal frequency and sensitivity to AGB makes SMOS L-VOD a very promising index for large scale monitoring of the vegetation status, in particular biomass.
Citation: Rodríguez-Fernández, N. J., Mialon, A., Mermoz, S., Bouvet, A., Richaume, P., Al Bitar, A., Al-Yaari, A., Brandt, M., Kaminski, T., Le Toan, T., Kerr, Y. H., and Wigneron, J.-P.: The high sensitivity of SMOS L-Band vegetation optical depth to biomass, Biogeosciences Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2018-49, in review, 2018.
Nemesio J. Rodríguez-Fernández et al.
Nemesio J. Rodríguez-Fernández et al.
Nemesio J. Rodríguez-Fernández et al.

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Short summary
Existing global scale above ground biomass (AGB) maps are done at very high spatial resolution collecting data during several years. In this paper we discuss the use of a new data set from the SMOS satellite: the vegetation optical depth estimated from low microwave frequencies. It is shown that this new data set is highly sensitive to AGB. The spacial resolution of SMOS is coarse (40 km) but the new data set can be used to monitor AGB variations with time due to its high revisit frequency.
Existing global scale above ground biomass (AGB) maps are done at very high spatial resolution...
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