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Biogeosciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2018-446
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2018-446
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 01 Nov 2018

Submitted as: research article | 01 Nov 2018

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Biogeosciences (BG).

Nitric oxide (NO) in the Bohai and Yellow Seas

Ye Tian1,3, Chao Xue1,3, Chun-Ying Liu1,3, Gui-Peng Yang1,2, Pei-Feng Li1,3, Wei-Hua Feng4, and Hermann W. Bange5 Ye Tian et al.
  • 1Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Qingdao, 266100, China
  • 2Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China
  • 3College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266100, China
  • 4Key Laboratory of Engineering Oceanography, Second Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Hangzhou, 310012, China
  • 5GEOMAR Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung Kiel, Kiel, 24105, Germany

Abstract. Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived compound of the marine nitrogen cycle; however, our knowledge about its oceanic distribution and pathways is rudimentary. Here we present the measurements of dissolved NO in the surface and bottom layers at 75 stations in the Bohai Sea (BS) and Yellow Sea (YS) in June 2011. Moreover, NO photoproduction rates were determined at 27 stations in both seas. The NO concentrations in the surface and bottom layers were highly variable and ranged from below the detection limit (i.e. 32 pmol L−1) to 616 pmol L−1 in the surface layer and to 482 pmol L−1 in the bottom layer. There was no significant difference between the mean NO concentrations in the surface (186 ± 108 pmol L−1) and bottom (174 ± 123 pmol L−1) layers. A decreasing trend of NO bottom layer concentrations salinity indicates a NO input by submarine groundwater discharge. NO in the surface layer was supersaturated at all stations during both day and night and therefore the BS and YS were a persistent source of NO to the atmosphere at the time of our measurements. The accumulation of NO during daytime was resulting from photochemical production and photoprodcution rates were correlated to illuminance. The persistent nighttime NO supersaturation pointed to a, so far unknown, NO dark production. NO sea-to-air flux densities were much lower than the NO photoproduction rates. Therefore, we conclude that the bulk of the NO produced in the mixed layer was rapidly consumed before its release to the atmosphere. Overall, the oceanic NO emissions to the atmosphere were negligible compared to anthropogenic NOx sources such as emissions from ships.

Ye Tian et al.
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Ye Tian et al.
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Short summary
Nitric oxide (NO) seems to be widespread with different functions in marine ecosystem but know little about it. Concentrations of NO were in the range of from below the detection limit to 616 pmol L−1 in the surface and to 482 pmol L−1 in the bottom of the Bohai and Yellow Seas. The study region was a source of the atmospheric NO. NO sea-to-air fluxes were much lower than NO photoproduction rates, implying that the NO produced in the mixed layer was rapidly consumed before enter the atmosphere.
Nitric oxide (NO) seems to be widespread with different functions in marine ecosystem but know...
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