Modeling the dynamic chemical interactions of atmospheric ammonia and other trace gases with measured leaf surface wetness in a managed grassland canopy
1Institute for Crop Science and Resource Conservation, INRES-PE, University of Bonn, Karlrobert-Kreiten-Str. 13, 53115 Bonn, Germany
2Soils, Agronomy and Spatialization Unit, UMR-SAS, INRA, Rennes, France
3Royal Veterinary & Agricultural University (RVAU), Copenhagen, Denmark
4Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten, The Netherlands
5University of Etvos Lorand (ELU), Budapest, Hungary
6Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH), Edinburgh Research Station, Midlothian, UK
Abstract. Ammonia exchange fluxes between grassland and the atmosphere were modeled on the basis of stomatal compensation points and leaf surface chemistry, and compared with measured fluxes during the GRAMINAE intensive measurement campaign in spring 2000 near Braunschweig, Germany. Leaf wetness and dew chemistry in grassland were measured together with ammonia fluxes and apoplastic NH4+ and H+ concentration, and the data were used to apply, validate and further develop an existing model of leaf surface chemistry and ammonia exchange. The leaf surface water storage was calculated from measured leaf wetness data using an exponential parameterisation.
The measurement period was divided into three phases: a relatively wet phase followed by a dry phase in the first week before the grass was cut, and a second drier week after the cut. While the first two phases were mainly characterised by ammonia deposition and occasional short emission events, regular events of strong ammonia emissions were observed during the post-cut period. A single-layer resistance model including dynamic cuticular and stomatal exchange could describe the fluxes well before and after the cut, but unrealistically high stomatal compensation points were needed after the cut in order to match measured fluxes. Significant improvements were obtained when a second layer was introduced into the model, to account for the large additional ammonia source inherent in the leaf litter at the bottom of the grass canopy.